Analysis of the proteomic profile of pressure ulcers over time is a critical step in the identification of biomarkers of healing or nonhealing in pressure ulcers. The wound fluid from 32 subjects with 42 pressure ulcers was evaluated over 6 weeks at 15 time points. Samples specific to both the interior and the periphery of the wound bed were collected. Antibody screening arrays, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation with mass spectrometry and multiplexed microarrays were used to characterize wound fluid and results were correlated with clinical outcome. Twenty-one proteins were found to distinguish between healed and chronic wounds and 19 proteins were differentially expressed between the interior and periphery of wounds. Four proteins, pyruvate kinase isozymes M1/M2, profilin-1, Ig lambda-1 chain C regions, and Ig gamma-1 chain C region, were present in lower levels for periphery samples when compared to interior samples and six proteins, keratin, type II cytoskeletal 6A (KRT6A), keratin, type I cytoskeletal 14, S100 calcium binding proteins A7, alpha-1-antitrypsin precursor, hemoglobin subunit alpha, and hemoglobin subunit beta, were present in higher levels in periphery samples when compared with interior samples. S100 calcium binding protein A6, S100 calcium binding protein A7, and soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-products had higher levels in the periphery of chronic wounds vs. the interior in planar arrays. A significant temporal trend was noted for monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG), synonomous with chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 (CXCL9), which increased as wounds healed and remained nearly constant for ulcers that were not approaching closure.
© 2012 by the Wound Healing Society.