Background: No United States-based clinical trials have attempted delivery of biological therapies directly to the spinal cord for treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) because of the lack of a meaningful US Food and Drug Administration-authorized cell candidate and a validated delivery approach.
Objective: To assess safety of delivery of a neural stem cell-based treatment into the upper lumbar segments of the ALS spinal cord in the first US Food and Drug Administration-authorized phase I trial.
Methods: Each microinjection series comprised 5 injections (10 μL/injection) separated by 4 mm. Each injection deposited 100,000 neural stem cells derived from a fetal spinal cord. Twelve patients were treated with either unilateral or bilateral injections. Group A, nonambulatory patients, underwent unilateral (n = 3) or bilateral (n = 3) lumbar microinjections. Groups B and C were ambulatory (n = 3 each) and, respectively, received unilateral or bilateral injections. Patients are followed clinically and radiologically to assess potential toxicity of the procedure.
Results: Twelve patients have received a transplant. There was one instance of transient intraoperative somatosensory-evoked potentials depression. In the immediate postoperative period, there was 1 episode of urinary retention requiring Foley catheter reinsertion. By discharge, none had a documented motor function decrement. Two patients required readmission and reoperation for cerebrospinal fluid leak or suprafascial wound dehiscence (n = 1 each). Two deaths occurred at 8 and 13 months postsurgery; neither was related to the surgical transplant.
Conclusion: Our experience in 12 patients supports the procedural safety of unilateral and bilateral intraspinal lumbar microinjection. Completion of this phase I safety trial is planned by proceeding to cervical and combined cervical + lumbar microinjections in ALS patients.