Background: Kawasaki syndrome (KS) occurs in children <18 years of age and is the leading cause of acquired heart disease among children in the United States. Understanding the epidemiology of KS and factors associated with coronary artery abnormalities (CAA) may lead to timely diagnosis and treatment of KS and could limit CAA.
Methods: Epidemiologic characteristics, including risk factors for the development of CAA, among KS and incomplete KS patients <18 years of age with onset during 2000-2009 reported by the California Department of Public Health to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's national KS surveillance system were analyzed.
Results: A total of 2056 KS and incomplete KS patients <18 years of age were reported during 2000-2009. The median age of patients was 2 years; 60% of patients were male. Of 1818 patients with race information reported, 56% were white and 28% were Asian/Pacific Islander. Ninety-eight percent of patients received intravenous immunoglobulin. Of 1843 patients with information on cardiac complications, 89 (5%) had coronary artery aneurysms and 341 (19%) had CAA. Characteristics associated with the occurrence of CAA in KS patients were male sex, Asian/Pacific Islander race, age <1 year or 9-17 years, and not receiving intravenous immunoglobulin treatment before the fifth day of illness.
Conclusions: This study suggests that intravenous immunoglobulin treatment before the fifth day of illness may reduce CAA among KS patients. Timely diagnosis and treatment of KS continue to be important in reducing the occurrence of cardiac complications.