Objectives: To evaluate the pharmacokinetics, tolerability and safety of 300 mg of atazanavir boosted with 100 or 50 mg of ritonavir, both once daily, at steady state.
Methods: This was a single-blind, multiple-dose, crossover, sequence-randomized trial. Thirteen healthy HIV-1-negative men received witnessed once-daily doses of atazanavir (300 mg) and 100 or 50 mg of ritonavir for 10 days (15 day washout). Atazanavir and ritonavir plasma concentrations were determined for 24 h on day 10. Log-transformed individual pharmacokinetic parameters were compared between treatments (analysis of variance); the difference between treatments on the log scale and 95% CIs were calculated. Fasting cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose and bilirubin plasma levels were measured at the beginning and end of each period and compared (Wilcoxon signed rank test). Gastrointestinal symptoms and other events were recorded.
Results: Ritonavir C(max) and the AUC₀₋₂₄ were lower after the 50 mg booster dose than after 100 mg [geometric mean ratio (GMR) (95% CI), 0.40 (0.31-0.51) and 0.35 (0.29-0.42), respectively]. No differences were observed in atazanavir exposure with 50 or 100 mg of ritonavir [GMR C(max) (95% CI), 1.00 (0.79-1.28); GMR AUC₀₋₂₄ (95% CI), 0.98 (0.79-1.21)]. Atazanavir trough concentration was >0.15 mg/L in all volunteers. Total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased 0.40 mM (P = 0.01) and 0.37 mM (P = 0.003) from their corresponding baseline value during the 100 mg dosing period; there were no significant changes on 50 mg. Mild increases in bilirubin were detected on day 10 after both treatments without differences between treatments.
Conclusions: In spite of higher exposure to ritonavir with 100 mg, atazanavir exposure was equivalent; the lipid profile was better under the lower booster dose (50 mg).