A follow-up study was conducted from 1967 to 1987 for patients diagnosed as having itai-itai disease, subjects who were suspected of having the disease, and controls. Ninety-five subjects per category were selected after matching for age, sex, and residential area. The cumulative survival rate of the patients who had a definite diagnosis of itai-itai disease was significantly lower than that of the control group in every period after the first 3 y. The cumulative survival rate of the subjects who were suspected of having itai-itai disease and who had severe renal dysfunction due to cadmium pollution was significantly lower than that of the control group. These results demonstrate (1) the enduring negative influence of itai-itai disease on prognosis and (2) that the cadmium pollution-induced renal disorder adversely affects the health of the inhabitants of a cadmium-polluted area.