Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
, 2011, 182051

Pathogenesis of Y. Enterocolitica and Y. Pseudotuberculosis in Human Yersiniosis

Affiliations

Pathogenesis of Y. Enterocolitica and Y. Pseudotuberculosis in Human Yersiniosis

Cristi L Galindo et al. J Pathog.

Abstract

Yersiniosis is a food-borne illness that has become more prevalent in recent years due to human transmission via the fecal-oral route and prevalence in farm animals. Yersiniosis is primarily caused by Yersinia enterocolitica and less frequently by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Infection is usually characterized by a self-limiting acute infection beginning in the intestine and spreading to the mesenteric lymph nodes. However, more serious infections and chronic conditions can also occur, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis are both heterogeneous organisms that vary considerably in their degrees of pathogenicity, although some generalizations can be ascribed to pathogenic variants. Adhesion molecules and a type III secretion system are critical for the establishment and progression of infection. Additionally, host innate and adaptive immune responses are both required for yersiniae clearance. Despite the ubiquity of enteric Yersinia species and their association as important causes of food poisoning world-wide, few national enteric pathogen surveillance programs include the yersiniae as notifiable pathogens. Moreover, no standard exists whereby identification and reporting systems can be effectively compared and global trends developed. This review discusses yersinial virulence factors, mechanisms of infection, and host responses in addition to the current state of surveillance, detection, and prevention of yersiniosis.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Human yersiniosis cases reported for selected countries that conduct active annual surveillance for the yersiniae. Surveillance data for years 2000 to 2009 were collected from national repositories for Canada (National Microbiology Laboratory, http://www.publichealth.gc.ca), the United States (FoodNet, http://www.cdc.gov/foodnet), 24 European Union members (European Food Safety Authority, http://www.efsa.europa.eu), New Zealand (The Institute of Environmental Science and Research, http://www.surv.esr.cri.nz), Australia (OZFoodNet, http://www.ozfoodnet.gov.au), Northwestern Russia, the Republic of Karelia, Ukraine, and Belarus (EpiNorth Project, http://www.ozfoodnet.gov.au). Russian data was obtained only from the following participating regions: Arkhangelsk oblast, Kaliningrad oblast, Leningrad oblast, Murmansk oblast, Nenets Autonomous okrug, Novgorod oblast, Pskov oblast, St. Petersburg City, Vologda oblast, and the Republic of Komi. For comparison, countries defined as Western European nations based on the classification scheme used by the United Nations include Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, and Luxembourg (which are marked with an asterisk). As shown, Germany reported the greatest number of human cases per annum for the ten-year period included (years 2000–2009), compared to all other countries examined, including the bordering countries of Denmark, Poland, Czech Republic, Austria, and France. The annual cases reported are shown on the ordinate, with the axis broken between 1,000 and 4,500 cases to allow the inclusion of Germany and other countries in one graphical display. Yearly cases were not adjusted for population differences. Individual countries are listed on the abscissa. USA: United States; UK: United Kingdom.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Line graph comparing the yearly incidence rate of yersiniosis reported for various European countries, North America, and Oceania. Surveillance data were collected from national repositories for Canada (National Microbiology Laboratory, http://www.publichealth.gc.ca), the United States (FoodNet, http://www.cdc.gov/foodnet), 24 European Union members (European Food Safety Authority, http://www.efsa.europa.eu), New Zealand (The Institute of Environmental Science and Research, http://www.surv.esr.cri.nz), Australia (OZFoodNet, http://www.ozfoodnet.gov.au), Northwestern Russia, the Republic of Karelia, Ukraine, and Belarus (EpiNorth Project, http://www.epinorth.org). The yearly incidence rate (cases per 100,000 in the surveillance population) was calculated based on total reported cases per year and published population figures included in published surveillance reports or governmental census sites. For countries where surveillance did not include the entire population, rates were adjusted based on the surveillance population and case information provided with the original surveillance data. For countries that did not provide data for all years included in the analysis (i.e., 2000–2009), the rate was extrapolated using linear regression (e.g., Canada, Australia, and Luxembourg). Notification rate (calculated as explained above) per 100,000 persons is shown on the ordinate, and a total of 30 countries presented by region are displayed on the abscissa. Western Europe (WE) includes Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, and Luxembourg. North America includes Canada and the United States. Northern Europe includes Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, the United Kingdom, Ireland, Denmark, Norway, Finland, Sweden, and the Republic of Karelia. Eastern Europe includes the Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria, the Ukraine, Belarus, and Northwestern Russia. Southern Europe includes Slovenia, Spain, and Malta. Oceania includes New Zealand and Australia. All of the available European data considered together (aE), representing a total of 28 countries, is also shown for comparison.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Mechanisms of action of the enteropathogenic yersiniae Ysc T3SS effectors (Yops) on host cell signaling and survival. As shown, membrane-bound Yersinia Yad and invasin proteins bind host cell β1-integrins, bringing the bacteria into close proximity to the host cell thereby facilitating insertion of the T3SS injectisome needle-like structure into the targeted host cell. Yops are then translocated across the host plasma membrane and into the cytoplasm, where they interact with the cytoskeleton and host cell signaling molecules. YopO/YpkA interacts directly with the cytoskeleton, as well as the small GTPase signaling molecules, RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42. YopE inhibits the activities of RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42. YopP/J promotes LPS-induced host cell apoptosis and directly induces capsase-1 cleavage. YopP/J also inhibits mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and IKK-mediated NF-κB activation, which prevents expression of proinflammatory and cell survival genes. YopM forms a complex with Rsk and Pkn in the host cell nucleus, which is believed to contribute to bacterial pathogenesis. The figure was produced using Pathway Builder 1.0, a cell signaling drawing tool provided through the Protein Lounge (http://www.ProteinLounge.com).

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 32 PubMed Central articles

See all "Cited by" articles

References

    1. Alexandrino M, Grohmann E, Szewzyk U. Optimization of PCR-based methods for rapid detection of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli and Yersinia enterocolitica serovar 0:3 in wastewater samples. Water Research. 2004;38(5):1340–1346. - PubMed
    1. El-Maraghi NRH, Mair NS. The histopathology of enteric infection with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis . American Journal of Clinical Pathology. 1979;71(6):631–639. - PubMed
    1. Bottone EJ. Yersinia enterocolitica: overview and epidemiologic correlates. Microbes and Infection. 1999;1(4):323–333. - PubMed
    1. Frölich K, Wisser J, Schmüser H, et al. Epizootiologic and ecologic investigations of European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) in selected populations from Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 2003;39(4):751–761. - PubMed
    1. Langford EV. Pasteurella pseudotuberculosis infections in Western Canada. Canadian Veterinary Journal. 1972;13(4):85–87. - PMC - PubMed

LinkOut - more resources

Feedback