Myopic choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is one of the leading causes of visual impairment worldwide. The clinical and socioeconomic impact of myopic CNV in Asian countries is particularly significant due to rising trend in the prevalence and severity of pathological myopia. The exact pathogenesis of myopic CNV remains unclear and there is paucity of information with respect to incidence and risk factors for myopic CNV from prospective studies. Furthermore, there are no recognized measures that may prevent or delay the development of CNV in eyes with pathological myopia. Advances have been made in the diagnosis and characterization of myopic CNV over the years. Until recently, treatment modalities for myopic CNV were limited to thermal laser photocoagulation and photodynamic therapy with verteporfin, both these modalities primarily aim at prevention of further visual loss. In the last 5 years, inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) have been used successfully and may improve vision to some extent. Nevertheless, the long-term safety and efficacy of anti-VEGF agents remains unknown. Furthermore, the risk of developing chorioretinal atrophy remains the key factor in determining the final visual outcome. This review article summarizes the current literature on myopic CNV, highlighting new evolving diagnostic and treatment modalities, prognostic factors influencing visual outcome, and areas of future research.
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