Role of diabetes in the prognosis and therapeutic outcome of tuberculosis

Int J Endocrinol. 2012;2012:645362. doi: 10.1155/2012/645362. Epub 2012 Apr 18.


Background. Increased susceptibility of diabetic mellitus (DM) patients to infection, including tuberculosis (TB), is well documented. The prevalence of DM in Malaysia is reaching epidemic proportions. In this study, we sought to assess risk factors for TB and the impact of DM on the outcome of TB treatment. Methods. TB patients, diabetic patients, and diabetic patients with TB were divided into three groups of 200 subjects each. Data were obtained from patients' medical files at the beginning and end of the study period. Prevalence rates of DM and HIV among TB patients were assessed. Prognosis, TB-related complications, anatomical site of infection, and duration of infection and diabetes were also examined. Results. The prevalence rates of HIV and DM amongst TB patients were 7.7 and 30%, respectively. The diabetic TB patient group contained more males (72%) and smokers (45.5%) compared to the nondiabetic group (58.3% and 33.5%, resp.). Approximately 74% of diabetic patients were Mycobacterium sputum positive compared to only 51% of nondiabetic patients. Diabetic patients were also more likely to develop pulmonary TB (87%) compared to nondiabetic TB patients (59%). Diabetic TB patients had a higher mortality rate (7.5%) compared to the TB only and DM only groups (1 and 2%, resp.). The duration of TB symptoms was longer in nondiabetic TB patients compared to diabetic TB patients (4.5 versus 2.6 months, resp.). Diabetes antedated TB by a mean time of 4 years. Conclusions. We found a higher number of sputum-smear-positive cases and pulmonary TB cases as well as a greater number of males and higher mortality rate in diabetic patients compared to nondiabetic patients.