Impact of Gd3+ on DNP of [1-13C]pyruvate doped with trityl OX063, BDPA, or 4-oxo-TEMPO

J Phys Chem A. 2012 May 31;116(21):5129-38. doi: 10.1021/jp302399f. Epub 2012 May 18.


Hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]pyruvate has become an important diagnostic tracer of normal and aberrant cellular metabolism for in vitro and in vivo NMR spectroscopy (MRS) and imaging (MRI). In pursuit of achieving high NMR signal enhancements in dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) experiments, we have performed an extensive investigation of the influence of Gd(3+) doping, a parameter previously reported to improve hyperpolarized NMR signals, on the DNP of this compound. [1-(13)C]Pyruvate samples were doped with varying amounts of Gd(3+) and fixed optimal concentrations of free radical polarizing agents commonly used in fast dissolution DNP: trityl OX063 (15 mM), 4-oxo-TEMPO (40 mM), and BDPA (40 mM). In general, we have observed three regions of interest, namely, (i) a monotonic increase in DNP-enhanced nuclear polarization P(dnp) upon increasing the Gd(3+) concentration until a certain threshold concentration c(1) (1-2 mM) is reached, (ii) a region of roughly constant maximum P(dnp) from c(1) until a concentration threshold c(2) (4-5 mM), and (iii) a monotonic decrease in P(dnp) at Gd(3+) concentration c > c(2). Of the three free radical polarizing agents used, trityl OX063 gave the best response to Gd(3+) doping, with a 300% increase in the solid-state nuclear polarization, whereas addition of the optimum Gd(3+) concentration on BDPA and 4-oxo-TEMPO-doped samples only yielded a relatively modest 5-20% increase in the base DNP-enhanced polarization. The increase in P(dnp) due to Gd(3+) doping is ascribed to the decrease in the electronic spin-lattice relaxation T(1e) of the free radical electrons, which plays a role in achieving lower spin temperature T(s) of the nuclear Zeeman system. These results are discussed qualitatively in terms of the spin temperature model of DNP.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Allyl Compounds / chemistry*
  • Cyclic N-Oxides / chemistry*
  • Free Radicals / chemistry
  • Gadolinium / chemistry*
  • Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring / chemistry*
  • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
  • Pyruvic Acid / chemistry*


  • Allyl Compounds
  • Cyclic N-Oxides
  • Free Radicals
  • Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring
  • Oxo63
  • bis-diphenylene-phenyl-allyl
  • Pyruvic Acid
  • Gadolinium