Vegetable and fruit intake has been associated with a reduced risk of cancer and CVD, but its relationship to the risk of type 2 diabetes remains unclear. We prospectively examined the association between vegetable and fruit intake and the incidence of type 2 diabetes. Subjects were 21,269 men and 27,168 women aged 45-75 years who participated in the second survey of the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study and had no history of type 2 diabetes or other serious diseases. Intake of vegetables and fruit was estimated using a validated 147-item FFQ. The OR of self-reported, physician-diagnosed type 2 diabetes over 5 years was estimated using multiple logistic regression. A total of 896 newly diagnosed cases of type 2 diabetes were self-reported. Intake of vegetables and fruit combined or fruit only was not associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes. However, there was an approximately 20%, albeit not statistically significant, risk reduction associated with vegetables (men only), green leafy vegetables (men and women) and cruciferous vegetables (men only). Such risk reduction was somewhat greater among obese or smoking men than non-obese or non-smoking men. In conclusion, although a small beneficial effect of vegetables, especially green leafy and cruciferous vegetables, cannot be excluded, vegetable and fruit intake may not be appreciably associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes for Japanese adults.