Does timing to operative debridement affect infectious complications in open long-bone fractures? A systematic review

J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2012 Jun 20;94(12):1057-64. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.K.00582.


Background: Existing guidelines recommend emergency surgical debridement of open fractures within six hours after injury. The aim of this study was to systematically review the association between time to operative debridement of open fractures and infection.

Methods: Searches of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane computerized literature databases and manual searches of bibliographies were performed. Randomized controlled trials and cohort studies (retrospective and prospective) evaluating the association between time to operative debridement and infection after open fractures were included. Descriptive and quantitative data were extracted. A meta-analysis of patient cohorts who underwent early or delayed debridement was performed with use of a random effects model.

Results: The initial search identified 885 references. Of the 173 articles inspected further on the basis of the title, sixteen (six prospective and ten retrospective cohort studies with a total of 3539 open fractures) were included. No significant difference in the infection rate was detected between open fractures debrided early or late according to any of the time thresholds used in the included studies. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated no difference in infection rate between early and late debridement in subgroups defined according to the Gustilo-Anderson classification, level of evidence, depth of infection, or anatomic location.

Conclusions: The data did not indicate an association between delayed debridement and higher infection rates when all infections were considered, when only deep infections were considered, or when only more severe open fracture injuries were considered. On the basis of this analysis, the historical “six-hour rule” has little support in the available literature. It is important to realize that additional carefully conducted studies are needed and that elective delay of treatment of patients with open fractures is not recommended

Publication types

  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Debridement*
  • Fracture Fixation*
  • Fractures, Open / complications*
  • Fractures, Open / surgery*
  • Humans
  • Time Factors
  • Wound Infection / epidemiology*