Background: AxiaLIF was initially advocated as a minimally invasive, presacral lumbar fusion approach. Its use has expanded in to adult scoliosis surgeries.
Methods: Current literature about AxiaLIF for degenerative lumbar surgery and adult scoliosis surgery were reviewed. Anatomy, biomechanical properties, clinical results, and complications were summarized.
Results: Anatomically, AxiaLIF is relatively safe even though traversing blood vessels, and the pelvic splanchnic nerve can be at risk. AxiaLIF can provide significant stiffness compared to the intact spine, but posterior supplementation is recommended. AxiaLIF in the long construct for adult scoliosis surgeries can protect the S1 screw as effectively as pelvic fixation. Successful clinical outcomes after AxiaLIF were reported in the degenerative lumbar spine, adult scoliosis, and spondylolisthesis. It can facilitate a high fusion rate up to 96 % without BMP. Complications include pseudarthrosis, rectal injury, transient nerve irritation, and intrapelvic hematoma.
Conclusion: AxiaLIF is a relatively safe procedure, and it provides good clinical results in both short constructs and long constructs for adult scoliosis surgery. For a safer procedure, surgeons should seek out prior colorectal surgical history and review preoperative imaging studies carefully.