The objective of the study was to characterize factors associated with consistent condom use among men who had sex with men (MSM) in Abuja, Nigeria. A convenience sample consisting of 297 MSM was recruited during 2008 using a combination of peer referral and venue-based sampling. Descriptive statistics with chi square and t-test were used for demographic, sexual identity, and practices variables. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify factors associated with consistent condom use with male partners in the past 6 months. Approximately more than half (53%, n=155/290) reported always using condoms with male partner in the past 6 months and 43% (n=95/219) reported always using condoms with female partners in the past 6 months. In all, 11% (n=16/144) reported always engaging in safe sex defined as always using condoms with both male and female partners and always using a water-based condom compatible lubricant with male partners in the past 6 months. Independent associations with consistent condom use with male partners in the past 6 months were knowledge of at least one sexually transmitted infection (STI) that can be transmitted through unprotected anal intercourse (OR 2.47, 95% CI: 1.27-4.83, p<0.01) and having been tested for HIV (OR 2.40, 95% CI: 1.27-4.54, p<0.01). MSM who had been HIV tested at least once were more likely to use condoms consistently during anal intercourse in multivariate analyses. In addition, STI knowledge was also associated with consistent condom use during anal intercourse implying that interventions targeting high-risk practices are effective as HIV prevention for this high-risk group. Future directions include intervention research to determine the appropriate package of services for MSM in Nigeria. In addition, implementation science evaluations of how best to operationalize combination HIV prevention interventions for MSM given the criminalization and stigmatization of same-sex practices are crucial.