Hyperproduction of mucin in the nasal epithelium is an important feature of nasal inflammatory diseases. We investigated the mechanism of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) involvement in mucin 5 subtype AC (MUC5AC) expression in human nasal epithelial cells. The primary human nasal epithelial cells were cultured in vitro, which were treated with LPS (10 nM/ml or 1 μM/ml) for 12 and 24 h. LPS-induced MUC5AC protein was determined in nasal epithelial cells. The levels of nuclear factor kappa B p65 (NF-κBp65) and its inhibitor kappa Bα (IκBα) protein were also detected, and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) mRNA was detected by real-time PCR. LPS up-regulated MUC5AC protein in human nasal epithelial cells, and we determined that the up-regulation of MUC5AC expression was due to a time- and dose-dependent degradation of IκBα protein, which resulted in the increase of NF-κBp65 nuclear translocation. Subsequently, we also determined that LPS can induce IL-1β mRNA in a time- and dose-dependent manner. These data show that LPS treatment activated NF-κB by promoting the degradation of IκBα and the nuclear localization of NF-κBp65, which induced MUC5AC overproduction.