Immunologic Basis of Cardiovascular Disease in HIV-infected Adults

J Infect Dis. 2012 Jun;205 Suppl 3(Suppl 3):S375-82. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jis200.


Cardiovascular complications are more common in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals than in age-matched uninfected individuals. Antiretroviral therapy reduces the risk of cardiovascular complications, suggesting that viral replication directly or indirectly causes vascular disease. Long-term effective antiretroviral therapy does not fully restore vascular health, and treated adults continue to have higher-than-expected rates of disease progression. Although this excess risk during therapy is likely due to multiple factors, a growing body of evidence suggests that chronic inflammation, which persists during effective antiretroviral therapy, is directly and causally associated with vascular dysfunction and the accelerated development of atherosclerosis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / complications*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / immunology*
  • HIV Infections / complications*
  • HIV Infections / immunology*
  • HIV Infections / virology
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / blood
  • Inflammation / immunology


  • Biomarkers