Socket preservation using bovine bone mineral and collagen membrane: a randomized controlled clinical trial with histologic analysis

Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent. 2012 Aug;32(4):421-30.


After tooth extraction, varying amounts of bone resorption occur because of qualitative and quantitative changes at the edentulous site of the alveolar process. The aims of this randomized controlled clinical trial were (1) to compare the postextraction changes in residual ridge dimensions during spontaneous healing with those during socket preservation, (2) to analyze the histologic and histomorphometric aspects of the grafted sockets, and (3) to compare probing procket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL) changes at teeth adjacent to extraction sites. Forty-eight teeth were extracted from 41 patients referred for extraction of 1 or more maxillary or mandibular premolars or molars. The edentulous sites were randomly assigned to the control (EXT, extraction alone) or experimental groups (SP, extraction and socket preservation). In the SP group, the sockets were filled with bovine bone mineral and covered with porcine collagen membrane. At baseline and after 4 months, PPD, gingival recession (REC), and CAL were measured at teeth adjacent to the edentulous sites. The changes in ridge dimensions from baseline to 4 months were assessed on dental casts. At 4 months, bone was harvested from the grafted areas in the SP group and the edentulous areas in the EXT group. PPD, REC, and CAL were comparable between groups. However, from baseline to 4 months, the SP group showed significantly less reduction in ridge width (1.04 ± 1.08 mm vs 4.48 ± 0.65 mm, P < .001) and height (0.46 ± 0.46 mm vs 1.54 ± 0.33 mm, P < .001). Histologically, the grafted sockets exhibited various stages of bone maturation and formation without inflammatory responses. No significant difference in the mineralized and nonmineralized fractions was noted between the groups. Socket preservation using bovine bone mineral and porcine collagen membrane considerably limits the amount of horizontal and vertical bone resorption when compared with extraction alone.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Alveolar Process / pathology
  • Alveoloplasty / methods
  • Animals
  • Bone Matrix / transplantation*
  • Bone Resorption / pathology
  • Bone Substitutes / therapeutic use*
  • Calcification, Physiologic / physiology
  • Collagen*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Gingival Recession / classification
  • Gingival Recession / pathology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Membranes, Artificial*
  • Middle Aged
  • Minerals / therapeutic use*
  • Osteogenesis / physiology
  • Periodontal Attachment Loss / classification
  • Periodontal Attachment Loss / pathology
  • Periodontal Pocket / classification
  • Periodontal Pocket / pathology
  • Tooth Extraction
  • Tooth Socket / pathology
  • Tooth Socket / surgery*
  • Wound Healing / physiology
  • Young Adult


  • Bio-Gide
  • Bio-Oss
  • Bone Substitutes
  • Membranes, Artificial
  • Minerals
  • Collagen