Aqueous humor (AH) samples from 14 patients with presumed tuberculous uveitis (PTU), and 30 control patients were assayed for the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin IL-4, IL-12, IL-15, IL-17, interferon (IFN)-γ, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10, and the chemokines GRO-α/CXCL1, IL-8/CXCL8, MIG/CXCL9, IP-10/CXCL10 and SDF-1/CXCL12 with the use of a multiplex assay. Among cytokines, IL-4 and IL-12 were not detected. IL-15, IL-17, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-10 levels in AH were significantly higher in patients than in controls (p<0.001; p=0.004; p<0.001; p<0.001; p<0.001, respectively). Among chemokines, SDF-1 levels did not differ significantly between patients and controls, whereas GRO-α, IL-8, MIG and IP-10 levels were significantly higher in patients than in controls (p=0.001; p<0.001; p<0.001; p<0.001, respectively). Mean GRO-α levels in AH of PTU patients were 6-fold higher than IL-8 levels and mean IP-10 levels were 15-fold higher than MIG levels. Clinical disease activity correlated significantly with the levels of IL-15, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IP-10. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated a significant positive association between PTU and high levels of IFN-γ, IL-8, MIG and IP-10. These data suggest that both T helper (Th) Th(1) and Th(17) cells are involved in PTU and that the cytokine profile is polarized toward a Th(1) response. GRO-α and IP-10 might be involved in neutrophil and activated T lymphocyte chemoattraction in PTU, respectively.
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