Our concept of the kidney filtration barrier is changing from one of a static sieve into one of a highly dynamic structure regulated through the motility of podocyte foot processes. Inactivation of the small GTPase RhoA in vitro causes hypermotility, whereas activation decreases motility. Wang et al. show that both overactivation and underactivation of RhoA lead to podocyte foot process effacement and proteinuria in vivo. These data suggest that podocyte health requires a well-controlled balance between the two extremes.