Ramadan Prospective Diabetes Study: the role of drug dosage and timing alteration, active glucose monitoring and patient education

Diabet Med. 2012 Jun;29(6):709-15. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03563.x.


Aims: To observe the effects of active glucose monitoring, alteration of drug dosage and timing, dietary counselling and patient education in the occurrence of acute diabetic complications in fasting individuals with diabetes during the month of Ramadan.

Methods: This prospective study was conducted at the outpatient department of the Baqai Institute of Diabetology and Endocrinology. Two educational sessions, one about drug dosage and timing alteration and glucose monitoring, and the other about dietary and lifestyle modifications, were given to the patients by a doctor and a dietician, respectively. Patients who had been recruited were advised to note their blood glucose readings on a chart for at least 15 fasting days, twice a day with at least one reading in the fasting state.

Results: A total of 3946 readings were obtained in 110 subjects; 82 readings were in the hypoglycaemic range, and there were 22 episodes of symptomatic hypoglycaemia and 60 episodes of biochemical hypoglycaemia observed in 27 patients. Seven patients experienced symptomatic hypoglycaemia, whereas 20 patients had biochemical hypoglycaemia. Symptomatic hypoglycaemic episodes showed a downward trend from weeks 1 to 4. The highest frequencies of hypo- and hyperglycaemic episodes were observed pre-dawn. None of the patients developed diabetic ketoacidosis or hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state.

Conclusion: We observed that, with active glucose monitoring, alteration of drug dosage and timing, dietary counselling and patient education, the majority of the patients did not have any serious acute complications of diabetes during Ramadan.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Blood Glucose / metabolism*
  • Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring
  • Dehydration / blood
  • Dehydration / prevention & control
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / drug therapy*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy*
  • Diabetic Ketoacidosis / blood
  • Diabetic Ketoacidosis / prevention & control
  • Fasting* / adverse effects
  • Female
  • Holidays*
  • Humans
  • Hyperglycemia / blood
  • Hyperglycemia / prevention & control
  • Hypoglycemia / blood
  • Hypoglycemia / prevention & control
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Insulin / administration & dosage*
  • Islam*
  • Male
  • Patient Education as Topic
  • Prospective Studies


  • Blood Glucose
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Insulin