This article highlights the most common causes of velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI), and discusses routine evaluation and treatment algorithms for the management of VPI in children. VPI is a multifactorial condition that occurs commonly in syndromic and non-syndromic children. The most common features of VPI are audible hypernasal speech, facial grimacing, decreased speech intelligibility, nasal regurgitation, and nasal emission from failure to produce oronasal separation. Work-up of VPI typically involves radiologic and endoscopic testing performed with the assistance of a speech-language pathologist. Management of VPI involves initial speech therapy followed by operative repair with sphincter or pharyngeal flap pharyngoplasty, if needed.
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