We investigated associations between metabolic factors and blood cancer subtypes. Data on body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, blood glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides from seven prospective cohorts were pooled (n = 578,700; mean age = 44 years). Relative risks of blood cancers were calculated from Cox regression models. During mean follow-up of 12 years, 2,751 incident and 1,070 fatal cases of blood cancers occurred. Overall, higher BMI was associated with an increased blood cancer risk. In gender-specific subgroup analyses, BMI was positively associated with blood cancer risk (p = 0.002), lymphoid neoplasms (p = 0.01), and Hodgkin's lymphoma (p = 0.02) in women. Further associations with BMI were found for high-grade B-cell lymphoma (p = 0.02) and chronic lymphatic leukemia in men (p = 0.05) and women (p = 0.01). Higher cholesterol levels were inversely associated with myeloid neoplasms in women (p = 0.01), particularly acute myeloid leukemia (p = 0.003), and glucose was positively associated with chronic myeloid leukemia in women (p = 0.03). In men, glucose was positively associated with risk of high-grade B-cell lymphoma and multiple myeloma, while cholesterol was inversely associated with low-grade B-cell lymphoma. The metabolic syndrome score was related to 48 % increased risk of Hodgkin's lymphoma among women. BMI showed up as the most consistent risk factor, particularly in women. A clear pattern was not found for other metabolic factors.