Studies on the cardioprotective role of gallic acid against AGE-induced cell proliferation and oxidative stress in H9C2 (2-1) cells

Cardiovasc Toxicol. 2012 Dec;12(4):304-11. doi: 10.1007/s12012-012-9170-2.


Epidemiological studies have shown that high glucose levels and oxidative stress cause elevation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that are known to contribute to diabetic complications. Thus, agents that hamper reactive oxygen species (ROS) load can be used as a potential drug against AGEs-mediated complications. Hence, the present study investigated the protective role of gallic acid (GA) against the effects of AGEs in cardiac H9C2(2-1) cells. Exposure of cells to AGEs resulted in release of ROS (P < 0.05) with significant (P < 0.05) decline in antioxidant enzyme levels and increase in collagen (P < 0.01) content. In addition, the altered mitochondrial membrane potential (mmp) (P < 0.01) was also observed in cells exposed to AGEs, whereas AGEs-exposed cells pretreated with GA prevented the release of ROS, and there were no significant changes in the antioxidant status, collagen content and mmp. Thus, the results of the present study provide evidence that GA exhibits protective role against AGEs-induced cardiovascular complications probably through its free radical scavenging activity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology
  • Cardiotonic Agents / pharmacology*
  • Cell Line
  • Cell Proliferation / drug effects*
  • Gallic Acid / pharmacology*
  • Glycation End Products, Advanced / toxicity*
  • Myocytes, Cardiac / cytology
  • Myocytes, Cardiac / drug effects*
  • Myocytes, Cardiac / metabolism
  • Myofibroblasts / cytology
  • Myofibroblasts / drug effects
  • Myofibroblasts / metabolism
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects*
  • Oxidative Stress / physiology
  • Rats
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism


  • Antioxidants
  • Cardiotonic Agents
  • Glycation End Products, Advanced
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • Gallic Acid