The granulocytes in neutropenia 1 (GIN 1) study: a safety study of granulocytes collected from whole blood and stored in additive solution and plasma

Transfus Med. 2012 Aug;22(4):277-84. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3148.2012.01152.x. Epub 2012 May 16.


Objective/aim: To evaluate the safety of transfusing pooled, whole blood-derived granulocytes in additive solution and plasma (GASP) in 30 recipients.

Background: Demand for granulocytes in England has increased five-fold. With the advantages of reduced red cell, plasma and overall volume, GASP maintains function in vitro.

Methods and materials: Observations were recorded prior to and post transfusion. Increments were recorded at 1 h and the following morning. Leucocyte antibody screening was undertaken prior to and at 1-6 months following transfusion.

Results: Thirty patients aged between 8 months and 68 years received 221 GASP in 148 transfusion episodes. GASP contained an average of 1.0 × 10(10) granulocytes in 207 mL. Adults usually received two packs and children 10-20 mL kg(-1). Children and adults received a median [interquartile range (IQR)] dose of 12.5 (9.1-25.3) and 19.7 (12.0-25.8) × 10(9) granulocytes per transfusion, respectively. There was one episode of transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO) in a patient with chronic cardiac failure following 600 mL of unpooled granulocytes, other fluids and one GASP. New leucocyte alloimmunisation occurred in 3/30 recipients 10%. No other significant reactions were reported. Median peripheral blood neutrophil increments at 1 h post transfusion were 0.06 (IQR, 0.01-0.17) in children and (0.03) (IQR, 0-0.16) in adults.

Conclusion: GASP has a similar safety profile to other sources of granulocytes for patients with refractory infection or in need of secondary prophylactic transfusion. Further studies are required to clarify the role of GASP in the treatment of neutropenic patients.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Blood Preservation / adverse effects
  • Blood Preservation / methods*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • England
  • Female
  • Granulocytes / cytology*
  • Humans
  • Leukocyte Transfusion / adverse effects
  • Leukocyte Transfusion / methods*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neutropenia / therapy*
  • Pharmaceutical Solutions / adverse effects
  • Pharmaceutical Solutions / pharmacology
  • Safety*


  • Pharmaceutical Solutions