Recent advances in the development of GTR/GBR membranes for periodontal regeneration--a materials perspective

Dent Mater. 2012 Jul;28(7):703-21. doi: 10.1016/ Epub 2012 May 14.


Periodontitis is a major chronic inflammatory disorder that can lead to the destruction of the periodontal tissues and, ultimately, tooth loss. To date, flap debridement and/or flap curettage and periodontal regenerative therapy with membranes and bone grafting materials have been employed with distinct levels of clinical success. Current resorbable and non-resorbable membranes act as a physical barrier to avoid connective and epithelial tissue down-growth into the defect, favoring the regeneration of periodontal tissues. These conventional membranes possess many structural, mechanical, and bio-functional limitations and the "ideal" membrane for use in periodontal regenerative therapy has yet to be developed. Based on a graded-biomaterials approach, we have hypothesized that the next-generation of guided tissue and guided bone regeneration (GTR/GBR) membranes for periodontal tissue engineering will be a biologically active, spatially designed and functionally graded nanofibrous biomaterial that closely mimics the native extra-cellular matrix (ECM).

Objective: This review is presented in three major parts, including (1) a brief overview of the periodontium and its pathological conditions, (2) currently employed therapeutics used to regenerate the distinct periodontal tissues, and (3) a review of commercially available GTR/GBR membranes as well as the recent advances on the processing and characterization of GTR/GBR membranes from a materials perspective.

Significance: Studies of spatially designed and functionally graded membranes (FGM) and in vitro antibacterial/cell-related research are addressed. Finally, as a future outlook, the use of hydrogels in combination with scaffold materials is highlighted as a promising approach for periodontal tissue engineering.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bone Regeneration*
  • Guided Tissue Regeneration, Periodontal / methods*
  • Humans
  • Hydrogels / therapeutic use
  • Membranes, Artificial*
  • Nanostructures / chemistry
  • Nanostructures / therapeutic use
  • Periodontitis / rehabilitation
  • Periodontitis / therapy*
  • Periodontium / anatomy & histology
  • Periodontium / physiopathology
  • Tissue Engineering / instrumentation
  • Tissue Engineering / methods*
  • Tissue Engineering / trends
  • Tissue Scaffolds


  • Hydrogels
  • Membranes, Artificial