Polyamines regulate intestinal epithelial restitution through TRPC1-mediated Ca²+ signaling by differentially modulating STIM1 and STIM2

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2012 Aug 1;303(3):C308-17. doi: 10.1152/ajpcell.00120.2012. Epub 2012 May 16.


Early epithelial restitution occurs as a consequence of intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) migration after wounding, and its defective regulation is implicated in various critical pathological conditions. Polyamines stimulate intestinal epithelial restitution, but their exact mechanism remains unclear. Canonical transient receptor potential-1 (TRPC1)-mediated Ca(2+) signaling is crucial for stimulation of IEC migration after wounding, and induced translocation of stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) to the plasma membrane activates TRPC1-mediated Ca(2+) influx and thus enhanced restitution. Here, we show that polyamines regulate intestinal epithelial restitution through TRPC1-mediated Ca(2+) signaling by altering the ratio of STIM1 to STIM2. Increasing cellular polyamines by ectopic overexpression of the ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) gene stimulated STIM1 but inhibited STIM2 expression, whereas depletion of cellular polyamines by inhibiting ODC activity decreased STIM1 but increased STIM2 levels. Induced STIM1/TRPC1 association by increasing polyamines enhanced Ca(2+) influx and stimulated epithelial restitution, while decreased formation of the STIM1/TRPC1 complex by polyamine depletion decreased Ca(2+) influx and repressed cell migration. Induced STIM1/STIM2 heteromers by polyamine depletion or STIM2 overexpression suppressed STIM1 membrane translocation and inhibited Ca(2+) influx and epithelial restitution. These results indicate that polyamines differentially modulate cellular STIM1 and STIM2 levels in IECs, in turn controlling TRPC1-mediated Ca(2+) signaling and influencing cell migration after wounding.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Caco-2 Cells
  • Calcium Signaling*
  • Cell Adhesion Molecules / metabolism*
  • Cell Movement / physiology
  • Humans
  • Intestinal Mucosa / metabolism*
  • Membrane Proteins / metabolism*
  • Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism*
  • Ornithine Decarboxylase / biosynthesis
  • Ornithine Decarboxylase / genetics
  • Ornithine Decarboxylase Inhibitors
  • Polyamines / metabolism*
  • Stromal Interaction Molecule 1
  • Stromal Interaction Molecule 2
  • TRPC Cation Channels / metabolism*
  • Wound Healing / physiology


  • Cell Adhesion Molecules
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Ornithine Decarboxylase Inhibitors
  • Polyamines
  • STIM1 protein, human
  • STIM2 protein, human
  • Stromal Interaction Molecule 1
  • Stromal Interaction Molecule 2
  • TRPC Cation Channels
  • transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 1
  • Ornithine Decarboxylase