Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are emerging as an important public health problem in developing countries. The risk factors for NCDs are initiated during childhood and adolescence. The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness of school-based interventions for prevention of NCD risk factors (physical inactivity, diet, and tobacco consumption), and identify processes that affect the main outcome. The retrieved studies from 2001 to 2010 were analyzed for their methodological quality (using standard guidelines), settings, intervention components, and main outcomes. The literature search identified 37 studies. The proportion of studies showing a positive result was 83% (10/12) among those that involved family, 87%(7/8) that involved both community and family, and 76% (13/17) that involved school only. Overall, 80% of the studies reported at least some evidence of a positive intervention effect. The current literature search supports the effectiveness of school-based interventions for prevention of risk factors associated with NCDs.