Nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (NNT) is a mitochondrial redox-driven proton pump that couples the production of NADPH to the mitochondrial metabolic rate. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that NNT has a significant effect in the modulation of the immune response and host defense against pathogens. We found that NNT mRNA is enriched in immune system-related tissues and regulated during macrophage activation. Overexpression of NNT in a macrophage cell-line resulted in decreased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide upon induction of the macrophage inflammatory responses. These cells failed to fully activate MAPK signaling pathways, resulting in defective secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in response to LPS, and were inefficient in clearance of intracellular bacteria. We have shown that C57BL/6J mice, which have a deletion in the Nnt gene, exhibited greater resistance to acute pulmonary infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae. Macrophages from these mice generated more ROS and established a stronger inflammatory response to this pathogen. Our results demonstrate a novel role for NNT as a regulator of macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses.