The epidemiology of two cases of pseudallescheriasis in organ transplant patients are described and the disease in that population is reviewed. Disseminated hospital-acquired infection occurred in a liver transplant recipient and was fatal despite therapy with miconazole. A heart transplant recipient developed localized disease following soil contamination of soft tissue trauma which was cured with surgical resection and miconazole therapy. Itraconazole showed in vitro activity against Pseudallescheria boydii and should be evaluated in pseudallescheriasis. P. boydii infections are important complications of transplantation and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of community-acquired as well as nosocomial fungal infections in this population.