In the present analysis, “reinforcement” is the term used to describe any process that promotes learning: a change in behavior as the result of experience. The event (or stimulus) that initiates the process is called the reinforcer. Since both the reinforcer and its behavioral effects are observable and can be fully described, this can be taken as an operational definition. However, this definition is uninformative with respect to the processes that underlie the behavioral effects of reinforcement and tends to obscure the fact that there are several such effects, all of which result in behavioral change. This chapter discusses evidence for the existence and independent function of three reinforcement processes.
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Response-reinforcer Relations and Resistance to ChangeCA Podlesnik et al. Behav Processes 77 (1), 109-25. PMID 17706897.Behavioral momentum theory suggests that the relation between a response and a reinforcer (i.e., response-reinforcer relation) governs response rates and the relation bet …
Signaling Added Response-Independent Reinforcement to Assess Pavlovian Processes in Resistance to Change and RelapseCA Podlesnik et al. J Exp Anal Behav 102 (2), 179-97. PMID 25044232.Behavioral momentum theory asserts Pavlovian stimulus-reinforcer relations govern the persistence of operant behavior. Specifically, resistance to conditions of disruptio …
Unit Price as a Useful Metric in Analyzing Effects of Reinforcer MagnitudeRJ DeGrandpre et al. J Exp Anal Behav 60 (3), 641-66. PMID 8283154.In this paper, we applied the behavioral-economic concept of unit price to the study of reinforcer magnitude in an attempt to provide a consistent account of the effects …
The Functions of the Orbitofrontal CortexET Rolls. Brain Cogn 55 (1), 11-29. PMID 15134840. - ReviewThe orbitofrontal cortex contains the secondary taste cortex, in which the reward value of taste is represented. It also contains the secondary and tertiary olfactory cor …
A Model for Discriminating Reinforcers in Time and SpaceS Cowie et al. Behav Processes 127, 62-73. PMID 27016156. - ReviewBoth the response-reinforcer and stimulus-reinforcer relation are important in discrimination learning; differential responding requires a minimum of two discriminably-di …