Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has become one of the most prevalent and costly nosocomial infections. In spite of the importance of CDI, our knowledge of the pathogenesis of this infection is still rudimentary. Although previous use of antibiotics is generally considered to be the sine qua non of CDI, the mechanisms by which antibiotics render the host susceptible to C. difficile are not well defined. In this review, we will explore what is known about how the indigenous microbiota acts in concert with the host to prevent colonization and virulence of C. difficile and how antibiotic administration disturbs host-microbiota homeostasis, leading to CDI.
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