Increased Use of Enoxaparin in Pediatric Trauma Patients

J Pediatr Surg. 2012 May;47(5):980-3. doi: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2012.01.060.


Purpose: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) in pediatric trauma patients has been reported from 0.7 to 4.2 patients per 1000 admissions. There are no clear guidelines for prophylactic anticoagulation in children. The purpose of this study was to examine the use of enoxaparin in pediatric trauma patients.

Methods: The Pediatric Health Information System database was queried from 2001 to 2008 for patients 0 to 18 years with a primary diagnosis of trauma based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, codes. Patients who received enoxaparin and/or diagnosed with VTE were identified using pharmacy and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, codes. Logistic regression was used to identify patient and hospital characteristics associated with VTE and enoxaparin use.

Results: Among 260,078 pediatric trauma patients, 3195 were prescribed enoxaparin (1.23%), 2915 (1.12%) of whom were given enoxaparin without a diagnosis of VTE. The incidence of VTE remained stable (0.23%-0.28%), whereas the use of enoxaparin increased (0.75%-1.54%), especially in patients without VTE (0.65%-1.43%). Venous thromboembolism was significantly associated with pelvic fractures, intensive care unit stay, and central venous catheters (P = .017, P < .001, P < .001).

Conclusions: Despite a stable VTE incidence, the use of enoxaparin significantly increased in pediatric trauma patients, suggesting that use of pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis is increasing in pediatric trauma centers.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Databases, Factual
  • Drug Utilization / trends*
  • Enoxaparin / therapeutic use*
  • Fibrinolytic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Hospitals, Pediatric / trends*
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Logistic Models
  • Trauma Centers / trends*
  • United States
  • Venous Thromboembolism / epidemiology
  • Venous Thromboembolism / etiology
  • Venous Thromboembolism / prevention & control*
  • Wounds and Injuries / complications*


  • Enoxaparin
  • Fibrinolytic Agents