Establishment of germline sexual identity is critical for production of male and female germline stem cells, as well as sperm versus eggs. Here we identify PHD Finger Protein 7 (PHF7) as an important factor for male germline sexual identity in Drosophila. PHF7 exhibits male-specific expression in early germ cells, germline stem cells, and spermatogonia. It is important for germline stem cell maintenance and gametogenesis in males, whereas ectopic expression in female germ cells ablates the germline. Strikingly, expression of PHF7 promotes spermatogenesis in XX germ cells when they are present in a male soma. PHF7 homologs are also specifically expressed in the mammalian testis, and human PHF7 rescues Drosophila Phf7 mutants. PHF7 associates with chromatin, and both the human and fly proteins bind histone H3 N-terminal tails with a preference for dimethyl lysine 4 (H3K4me2). We propose that PHF7 acts as a conserved epigenetic "reader" that activates the male germline sexual program.
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