Purpose: To review prevalence, long-term progression, and prognosis of vitreoretinal interface modifications in pathologic myopia with posterior staphyloma and investigate foveal sensitivity and fixation stability.
Methods: Retrospective single-institution series of 214 eyes (116 patients) with pathologic myopia, axial length >30 mm, and posterior staphyloma. Exclusion criteria included follow-up less than five years, incomplete records, and/or less than three optical coherence tomography or microperimetry. Patients were divided into 5 groups according to optical coherence tomography: 1) epiretinal membrane without schisis (ERM); 2) macular retinal schisis (Schisis); 3) partial thickness macular hole (PTMH); 4) full-thickness macular hole (FTMH); and 5) posterior retinal detachment (PRD) with or without macular hole. Disease progression was defined as a visual acuity decrease of two or more lines associated to objective worsening of the optical coherence tomography and/or microperimetry.
Results: Vitreoretinal abnormalities at baseline were present in 116 of 204 patients (56.8%) and 214 of 408 eyes (52.4%); 98 of 116 patients (84.4%) showed bilateral involvement. Baseline visual acuity and foveal sensitivity varied significantly with ERM performing better and PRD worse than others; PTMH and FTMH did not differ. During the 66 months of average follow-up, 33 of 214 eyes (15.4%) required surgery and 13 of 33 eyes (39.3%) needed reintervention. Surgery rate significantly differed among groups: 2% for ERM, 20% to 25% for Schisis, PTMH, and FTMH, and up to 50% for PRD. Progression rate of Schisis and FTMH was the same, regardless of symptoms, while macula-off PRD always required surgery. Decrease of fixation stability and foveal sensitivity correlated to need for surgery, while baseline foveal sensitivity and fixation did not.
Conclusion: Vitreoretinal interface pathology in pathologic myopia with posterior staphyloma encompasses a spectrum of conditions whose baseline functionality, prognosis, rate, and amount of progression vary significantly. Customized treatment for each different condition should be considered.