First-line antiretroviral treatment regimens in resource-limited settings used in breastfeeding mothers often include stavudine (d4T). Limited data describing d4T concentrations in breast milk are available. We analyzed d4T concentrations in 52 mother-infant pairs using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (lower limit of quantification: 5 ng/mL in plasma, 20 ng/mL in breast milk). Median (interquartile range) d4T concentrations were 86 (36-191) ng/mL in maternal plasma, 151 (48-259) ng/mL in whole milk, 190 (58-296) ng/mL in skim milk, and <5 (<5 to <5) ng/mL in infant plasma. Although d4T is concentrated in breast milk relative to maternal plasma, the infant d4T dose received from breast milk is very small and not clinically significant.