Background: The safety and immunogenicity of high-dose pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) vaccination in perinatally human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected children, adolescents, and young adults are unknown.
Methods: Two 30-μg doses of 2009 Novartis pH1N1 monovalent vaccine (Fluvirin) were administered 21-28 days apart to perinatally HIV-1-infected children, adolescents, and young adults. Antibodies were measured by hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assay at baseline, 21-28 days after first vaccination, 7-13 days after the second vaccination, and 7 months after the first vaccination.
Results: Among the 155 participants, 54 were aged 4-8 years, 51 were aged 9-17 years, and 50 were aged 18-24 years. After 2 doses of Fluvirin, seroresponse (≥ 4-fold rise in HAI titers) was demonstrated in 79.6%, 84.8%, and 83% of participants in the aforementioned age groups, respectively, and seroprotection (HAI titers ≥ 40) was shown in 79.6%, 82.6%, and 85.1%, respectively. Of those lacking seroresponse (n = 43) or seroprotection (n = 37) after the first vaccination, 46.5% and 40.5% achieved seroresponse or seroprotection, respectively, after the second vaccination. Among participants who lacked seroprotection at entry, a "complete response" (both seroresponse and seroprotection) after first vaccination was associated with higher baseline log(10) HAI titer and non-Hispanic ethnicity. No serious vaccine-related events occurred.
Conclusion: Two doses of double-strength pH1N1 vaccine are safe and immunogenic and may provide improved protection against influenza in perinatally HIV-1-infected children and youth.
Clinical trials registration: NCT00992836.