Synthesis and antimicrobial effects of silver nanoparticles produced by chemical reduction method

Daru. 2010;18(3):168-72.

Abstract

Background and the purpose of the study: The most prominent nanoparticles for medical uses are nanosilver particles which are famous for their high anti-microbial activity. Silver ion has been known as a metal ion that exhibit anti-mold, anti-microbial and anti-algal properties for a long time. In particular, it is widely used as silver nitrate aqueous solution which has disinfecting and sterilizing actions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity as well as physical properties of the silver nanoparticles prepared by chemical reduction method.

Methods: Silver nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by reduction of silver nitrate in the presence of a reducing agent and also poly [N-vinylpyrolidone] (PVP) as a stabilizer. Two kinds of NPs were synthesized by ethylene glycol (EG) and glucose as reducing agent. The nanostructure and particle size of silver NPs were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser particle analyzer (LPA). The formations of the silver NPs were monitored using ultraviolet- visible spectroscopy. The anti-bacterial activity of silver NPs were assessed by determination of their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) against the Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis) as well as Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria.

Results and conclusion: The silver nanoparticles were spherical with particle size between 10 to 250 nm. Analysis of the theoretical (Mie light scattering theory) and experimental results showed that the silver NPs in colloidal solution had a diameter of approximately 50 nm. Both colloidal silver NPs showed high anti-bacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Glucose nanosilver colloids showed a shorter killing time against most of the tested bacteria which could be due to their nanostructures and uniform size distribution patterns.

Keywords: Colloids; Ethylene glycol; Glucose; Nanoparticles; Reduction method; Silver.