TRAIL [TNF (tumour necrosis factor)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand] has recently been shown to ameliorate the natural history of DM (diabetes mellitus). It has not been determined yet whether systemic TRAIL delivery would prevent the metabolic abnormalities due to an HFD [HF (high-fat) diet]. For this purpose, 27 male C57bl6 mice aged 8 weeks were randomly fed on a standard diet, HFD or HFD+TRAIL for 12 weeks. TRAIL was delivered weekly by intraperitoneal injection. Body composition was evaluated; indirect calorimetry studies, GTT (glucose tolerance test) and ITT (insulin tolerance test) were performed. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, together with adipose tissue gene expression and apoptosis, were measured. TRAIL treatment reduced significantly the increased adiposity associated with an HFD. Moreover, it reduced significantly hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia during a GTT and it improved significantly the peripheral response to insulin. TRAIL reversed the changes in substrate utilization induced by the HFD and ameliorated skeletal muscle non-esterified fatty acids oxidation rate. This was associated with a significant reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines together with a modulation of adipose tissue gene expression and apoptosis. These findings shed light on the possible anti-adipogenic and anti-inflammatory effects of TRAIL and open new therapeutic possibilities against obesity, systemic inflammation and T2DM (Type 2 DM).