Background: Antiplatelet properties of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been demonstrated in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). It is unknown whether omega-3 PUFA can enhance platelet inhibition on standard aspirin and clopidogrel treatment in the setting of CYP2C19 loss-of-function polymorphism.
Aim: To investigate whether omega-3 PUFA are able to modify platelet responsiveness to clopidogrel therapy in patients with CYP2C19 loss-of-function polymorphism undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
Methods: 63 patients with stable CAD undergoing PCI (48 males, mean age 63.2 ± 9.6 years) were enrolled into an investigator- initiated, prospective, single-centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised study. Patients on standard dual antiplatelet therapy (aspirin 75 mg daily and clopidogrel 600 mg loading dose followed by 75 mg daily) were assigned to receive the addition of 1 g of omega-3 ethyl esters (n = 33) or placebo (n = 30) for 1 month. Platelet function was measured serially by light transmittance aggregometry in response to 5 and 20 μmol/L ADP at baseline, 12 h, 3-5 days and 30 days after randomisation. CYP2C19*2 was genotyped at baseline.
Results: No significant differences were found in baseline variables, including the frequency of CYP2C19 genetic variants. At least one loss-of-function variant of CYP2C19*2 was found in 19 (30.2%) patients. In patients with CYP2C19*1/*2 and *2/*2 variants, maximal platelet aggregation induced by 5 and 20 μmol/L ADP was reduced by 21.4% (p = 0.006) and 14.3% (p = 0.041), respectively, after 1 month of treatment with omega-3 PUFA as compared to placebo. The beneficial effect of omega-3 PUFA was demonstrated in carriers of CYP2C19 loss-of-function polymorphism, whereas no differences in platelet aggregation between the omega-3 PUFA and placebo groups were found in patients with the 1*/1* variant.
Conclusions: The addition of omega-3 ethyl esters significantly potentiates platelet response to clopidogrel after PCI mostly in patients with CYP2C19 loss-of-function polymorphism.