The development of metastasis is a complex, multistep process that remains poorly defined. To identify proteins involved in the colonization phase of the metastatic process, we compared the proteome of tumors derived from inoculation of a panel of isogenic human cancer cell lines with different metastatic capabilities into the mammary fat pad of immunodeficient mice. Using a protein standard generated by SILAC-labeling, a total of 675 proteins were identified and 30 were differentially expressed between at least two of the tumors. The protein standard contained the proteomes of seven cell lines from multiple histogenic origins and displayed superior features compared to standard super-SILAC. The expression of some proteins correlated with metastatic capabilities, such as myosin-9 (nonmuscle myosin II A) and L-lactate dehydrogenase A, while the expression of elongation factor tu correlated inversely to metastatic capabilities. The expression of these proteins was biochemically validated, and expression of myosin-9 in clinical breast cancer samples was further shown to be altered in primary tumors versus corresponding lymph node metastasis. Our study demonstrates an improved strategy for quantitative comparison of an unlimited number of tumor tissues, and provides novel insights into key proteins associated with the colonization phase of metastasis formation.
© 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.