Biomarkers of coagulation, inflammation, and angiogenesis are independently associated with preeclampsia

Am J Reprod Immunol. 2012 Sep;68(3):258-70. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0897.2012.01158.x. Epub 2012 May 24.


Problem: Although preeclampsia has been associated with inflammation, coagulation, and angiogenesis, their correlation and relative contribution are unknown.

Method of study: About 114 women with preeclampsia, 31 with early onset (EOP) and 83 with late onset preeclampsia (LOP), and 100 normal pregnant controls were included. A broad panel of 32 biomarkers reflecting coagulation, inflammation, and angiogenesis was analyzed.

Results: Preeclampsia was associated with decreased antithrombin, IL-4 and placental growth factor levels and with increased C3a, pentraxin-3, and sFlt-1 levels, with more marked differences in the EOP group. The Th1-associated chemokines CXCL10 and CXCL11 were significantly higher in the preeclampsia and EOP group than in controls, respectively. No correlations between the biomarkers were found in preeclampsia. Multivariate logistic regression tests confirmed the results.

Conclusions: Cytokines, chemokines and complement activation seem to be part of a Th1-like inflammatory reaction in preeclampsia, most pronounced in EOP, where chemokines may be more useful than cytokines as biomarkers. Biomarkers were not correlated suggesting partly independent or in time separated mechanisms.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Antithrombins / blood
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Blood Coagulation / immunology
  • C-Reactive Protein / analysis
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Chemokine CXCL10 / blood
  • Chemokine CXCL11 / blood
  • Complement C3a / analysis
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / blood*
  • Inflammation / immunology
  • Interleukin-4 / blood
  • Neovascularization, Physiologic*
  • Placenta / blood supply*
  • Placenta / immunology
  • Placenta / metabolism
  • Placenta Growth Factor
  • Pre-Eclampsia
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Proteins / blood
  • Serum Amyloid P-Component / analysis
  • Statistics, Nonparametric
  • Time Factors
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1 / blood


  • Antithrombins
  • Biomarkers
  • CXCL10 protein, human
  • CXCL11 protein, human
  • Chemokine CXCL10
  • Chemokine CXCL11
  • IL4 protein, human
  • PGF protein, human
  • Pregnancy Proteins
  • Serum Amyloid P-Component
  • Placenta Growth Factor
  • PTX3 protein
  • Interleukin-4
  • Complement C3a
  • C-Reactive Protein
  • FLT1 protein, human
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1