Relationship between the early, late, and rechallenge reaction to nasal challenge with antigen: observations on the role of inflammatory mediators and cells

J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1990 Dec;86(6 Pt 1):851-61. doi: 10.1016/s0091-6749(05)80146-0.


We challenge each of 55 consecutive ragweed (RW)-allergic patients with hay fever and with graded increasing doses of ragweed extract to investigate the frequency and relationship between the early (ER), late (LPR), and rechallenge reactions (RCRs) to nasal challenge. We evaluated the nasal response by measuring the levels of histamine, TAME-esterase activity, and kinins in the nasal lavage fluid and by grading symptoms. Fifty-one subjects (92.7%) had an ER consisting of a dose-dependent, concommitant increase in both mediators and symptoms. The total amount of TAME-esterase activity and kinins generated during ER correlated significantly with specific serum IgE (ssIgE), intradermal skin test (ST) sensitivity, and basophil histamine release (BHR) to antigen E (p less than 0.01 for each). Twenty-four (47%) subjects developed a late increase in mediators and 23 (45%) subjects in symptoms. None of the four subjects without an ER developed an LPR. The levels of the late-appearing mediators were not predicted by ST, ssIgE, or BHR. There was a significant but weak association between the intensity of ER and LPR, but there was no significant difference in the IgE antibodies, ST, BHR, and intensity or threshold of ER between dual and early only reactors. The number of eosinophils and neutrophils in the LPR lavages increased over the prechallenge baseline, and their numbers correlated (p less than 0.05) with ER kinins (r = 0.46, and 0.37, respectively), ER TAME-esterase activity (r = 0.28 and 0.24, respectively), and in the case of eosinophils, ER histamine (r = 0.29).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cell Count
  • Female
  • Histamine / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Hypersensitivity, Delayed / diagnosis*
  • Hypersensitivity, Immediate / diagnosis*
  • Kinins / physiology*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nasal Provocation Tests*
  • Peptide Hydrolases / physiology*
  • Pollen
  • Respiratory Hypersensitivity / diagnosis*
  • Respiratory Hypersensitivity / pathology
  • Respiratory Hypersensitivity / physiopathology
  • Skin Tests


  • Kinins
  • Histamine
  • Peptide Hydrolases
  • tosylarginine methyl ester hydrolase