Purpose: The objective of this study was to estimate the latest prevalence of major comorbidities associated with gout and hyperuricemia in the US based on a recent, nationally representative sample of US men and women.
Methods: Using data from 5707 participants aged 20 years and older in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2008, we calculated the national prevalence and population estimates of major comorbidities according to gout status and various hyperuricemia levels, compared with those without these conditions. Case definitions of gout and comorbidities were based on an affirmative answer to a question that asked whether a physician or a health professional had diagnosed the corresponding condition.
Results: Among these individuals with gout, 74% (6.1 million) had hypertension, 71% (5.5 million) had chronic kidney disease stage ≥2, 53% (4.3 million) were obese, 26% (2.1 million) had diabetes, 24% (2.0 million) had nephrolithiasis, 14% (1.2 million) had myocardial infarction, 11% (0.9 million) had heart failure, and 10% (0.9 million) had suffered a stroke. These proportions were substantially higher than those among individuals without gout (all P-values <.67). With increasing levels of hyperuricemia, there were graded increases in the prevalences of these comorbidities. In the top category (serum urate ≥10 mg/dL), 86% of subjects had chronic kidney disease stage ≥2, 66% had hypertension, 65% were obese, 33% had heart failure, 33% had diabetes, 23% had myocardial infarction, and 12% had stroke. These prevalences were 3-33 times higher than those in the lowest serum urate category (<4 mg/dL). Sex-specific odds ratios tended to be larger among women than men, and the overall comorbidity prevalence was highest among individuals with both gout and hyperuricemia.
Conclusions: These findings from the latest nationally representative data highlight remarkable prevalences and population estimates of comorbidities of gout and hyperuricemia in the US. Appropriate preventive and management measures of these comorbidities should be implemented in gout management, with a preference to strategies that can improve gout and comorbidities together.
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.