Risk factors, clinical profile, and long-term outcome of 428 patients of cerebral sinus venous thrombosis: insights from Nizam's Institute Venous Stroke Registry, Hyderabad (India)

Neurol India. Mar-Apr 2012;60(2):154-9. doi: 10.4103/0028-3886.96388.

Abstract

Background: With the widespread use of neuroimaging and hematological workup, many of the previously held concepts about cerebral sinus venous thrombosis (CSVT) are changing.

Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the risk factors, clinical profile, and outcome of the fully investigated cases of CSVT from a major university referral hospital in South India.

Materials and methods: Consecutive patients of CSVT confirmed by definite neuroimaging criteria and fully investigated for prothrombotic states, between June 2002 and September 2010, were prospectively studied in the Venous Stroke Registry of Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad, South India.

Results: Of the 428 patients, 230 (53.7%) were men and the mean age was 31.3 years (range 8-65 years). Seizures were noted in 126 (29.4%) patients, stroke like presentation was found in 122 (28.5%) patients, and benign intracranial hypertension like presentation was found in 78 (18.2%) patients. Common risk factors were anemia in 79 (18.4%), hyperhomocysteinemia in 78 (18.2%), alcoholism in 67 (15.6%), oral contraceptive pill intake in 49 (11.4%), postpartum state in 42 (9.8%), anticardiolipin antibodies in 31 (7.2%), and protein S deficiency in 53 (12.3%) patients. Good outcome at 90 days (modified Rankin Scale £ 2) was observed in 273 (71.2%) of 383 patients available for follow-up. In-house mortality was noted in 33 (7.7%) and recurrence in 22 (5.1%) patients.

Conclusions: Compared to the previous studies, prevalence of CSVT was higher in men. Anemia, hyperhomocysteinemia, alcoholism, oral contraceptive use, and postpartum state were the most common risk factors. Overall prognosis was good, but a small percentage of patients died or showed recurrence.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Child
  • Comorbidity
  • Female
  • Humans
  • India / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Radiography
  • Registries / statistics & numerical data
  • Risk Factors
  • Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial / diagnostic imaging
  • Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial / mortality*
  • Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial / therapy*
  • Stroke / diagnostic imaging
  • Stroke / mortality*
  • Stroke / therapy*
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Young Adult