Background: Inhibition of mitochondrial function occurs in many neurodegenerative diseases, and inhibitors of mitochondrial complexes I and II are used to model them. The complex II inhibitor, 3-nitroproprionic acid (3-NPA), kills the striatal neurons susceptible in Huntington's disease. The complex I inhibitor N-methyl-4-phenylpyridium (MPP(+)) and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) are used to model Parkinson's disease. Zinc (Zn(2+)) accumulates after 3-NPA, 6-OHDA and MPP(+) in situ or in vivo.
Objective: We will investigate the role of Zn(2+) neurotoxicity in 3-NPA, 6-OHDA and MPP(+).
Methods: Murine striatal/midbrain tyrosine hydroxylase positive, or near-pure cortical neuronal cultures, or animals were exposed to 3-NPA or MPP(+) and 6-OHDA with or without neuroprotective compounds. Intracellular zinc ([Zn(2+)](i)), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)), NADH, glycolytic intermediates and neurotoxicity were measured.
Results: We showed that compounds or genetics which restore NAD(+) and attenuate Zn(2+) neurotoxicity (pyruvate, nicotinamide, NAD(+), increased NAD(+) synthesis, sirtuin inhibition or Zn(2+) chelation) attenuated the neuronal death induced by these toxins. The increase in [Zn(2+)](i) preceded a reduction in the NAD(+)/NADH ratio that caused a reversible glycolytic inhibition. Pyruvate, nicotinamide and NAD(+) reversed the reductions in the NAD(+)/NADH ratio, glycolysis and neuronal death after challenge with 3-NPA, 6-OHDA or MPP(+), as was previously shown for exogenous Zn(2+). To test efficacy in vivo, we injected 3-NPA into the striatum of rats and systemically into mice, with or without pyruvate. We observed early striatal Zn(2+) fluorescence, and pyruvate significantly attenuated the 3-NPA-induced lesion and restored behavioral scores.
Conclusions: Together, these studies suggest that Zn(2+) accumulation caused by MPP(+) and 3-NPA is a novel preventable mechanism of the resultant neurotoxicity.
Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.