3,3'-Dihydroxyisorenieratene and isorenieratene prevent UV-induced DNA damage in human skin fibroblasts

Free Radic Biol Med. 2012 Aug 1;53(3):457-63. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2012.05.022. Epub 2012 May 23.


Skin cancer is among the most frequent neoplastic malignancies and exposure to UV irradiation is a major risk factor. In addition to topical sunscreens, photoprotection by dietary antioxidants such as carotenoids or polyphenols has been suggested as a means of prevention. Isorenieratene (IR) and dihydroxyisorenieratene (DHIR) are aromatic carotenoids with particular antioxidant properties produced by Brevibacterium linens. The aim of this study was to investigate the photoprotective and antioxidant activities of DHIR and IR in comparison to the nonaromatic carotenoid lutein in human dermal fibroblasts. Incubation of the cells with DHIR and IR significantly decreased the UV-induced formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and formation of DNA strand breaks. Lipid oxidation was lowered as determined by the formation of malondialdehyde as a biomarker. Both aromatic carotenoids also prevented oxidatively generated damage to DNA as demonstrated by a decrease in DNA strand breaks associated with the formation of oxidized DNA bases. These data highlight the multifunctional photoprotective properties of aromatic carotenoids, which may be suitable natural compounds for the prevention of skin cancer.

MeSH terms

  • Antioxidants / metabolism
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology
  • Carotenoids / metabolism
  • Carotenoids / pharmacology*
  • Cell Survival
  • Cells, Cultured
  • DNA Breaks*
  • Fibroblasts / drug effects*
  • Fibroblasts / metabolism
  • Fibroblasts / physiology
  • Fibroblasts / radiation effects
  • Humans
  • Liposomes / metabolism
  • Malondialdehyde / metabolism
  • Phenols / pharmacology*
  • Pyrimidine Dimers / metabolism
  • Skin / cytology*
  • Sunscreening Agents / metabolism
  • Sunscreening Agents / pharmacology*
  • Ultraviolet Rays*


  • 3,3'-dihydroxyisorenieratene
  • Antioxidants
  • Liposomes
  • Phenols
  • Pyrimidine Dimers
  • Sunscreening Agents
  • isorenieratene
  • Carotenoids
  • Malondialdehyde