Intrapartum antibiotics are frequently administered to parturient women for suspected chorioamnionitis to treat infection in the mother and to prevent or treat infection in the baby. We sent a questionnaire to the 150 United States fellowship program directors in neonatology and pediatric infectious disease, focusing on recommendations for evaluation and therapy of apparently healthy, pretreated, term gestation infants. Eighty-three (55%) of the completed responses were analyzed. Sixteen (19%) respondents do no initial laboratory evaluation but simply observe the baby, 65 (78%) take a complete blood count as well as a platelet count, 59 (71%) obtain blood cultures, 41 (49%) check urine antigen for Group B Streptococcus (GBS) and 23 (28%) perform a lumbar puncture. Only 39% of respondents would begin antibiotic therapy for all pretreated infants. If the evaluation were unremarkable 65 directors would treat for less than or equal to 3 days. If only the urine GBS antigen were positive 47 would treat for greater than or equal to 7 days, while if an elevated immature neutrophil:total neutrophil ratio were the sole abnormality 19 would treat for greater than or equal to 7 days. Forty-four respondents thought that a combination of an elevated immature neutrophil:total neutrophil ratio and a positive urine GBS antigen should always be considered indicative of bacteremia. Given a different scenario, that of a mother treated with intrapartum antibiotics because of a positive cervical culture for GBS and a risk factor (e.g. temperature greater than or equal to 38 degrees C), 58 respondents would begin antibiotics. There is no consensus regarding management of pretreated, healthy appearing, term gestation neonates.