Background: Obesity is a serious social problem, one of the most important health issues of the modern world, especially in industrialized countries. Due to the prevalence obesity is a social disease, chronic and also a risk factor for many diseases such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, gall stones or cancers.
Objective: The aim of the study was to examine and evaluation whether the systematic one-year modifications of dietary habits affect the changes in body weight and some metabolic parameters in obese patients.
Material and method: 30 women and 30 men who declared intentions to decrease body weight were examined. The mean age of women was 48 +/- 12.5 years (range 31-72 years), men 51 +/- 13.2 years (range 23-70 years). The questionnaire survey concerning the subject matter was designed in the Department of Dietetics and Clinical Nutrition, Medical University of Bialystok. At the initial and final visit the frequency of some products consumption were assessed and concentrations of some biochemical parameters in the peripheral blood were measured.
Results: Women after one-year dietotherapy significantly reduced the incidence of eating: pasta, fruit and vegetable juices, potatoes, ripening cheese, sugar, meat, bacon and lard, butter and cream, and increased incidence of eating dark bread, groats, rice, vegetables and fruit, cottage cheese, fish and vegetable oils. Men significantly reduced the incidence of eating: pasta, potatoes, ripening cheese, sweet beverages, bacon and lard, margarine, and increased the incidence of eating dark bread, groats, rice, vegetables, cottage cheese and fish. After one year the average body weight decrease was 2.8 +/- 7.1 kg in women and 1.4 +/- 3.2 kg in men. The average reduction in waist circumference was 3.6 +/- 6.5 cm in women and 3.6 +/- 4,8 cm in men. HDL cholesterol levels increased significantly in women and not significantly in men. LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels decreased significantly in both groups. In women systolic blood pressure decreased significantly by on average 9.7 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure by 9.2 mmHg, and in men by 10.9 mmHg and 8.2 mmHg respectively.
Conclusions: Systematic nutritional education (every 3 months) may be the hope for effective body weight reduction and subsequent weight loss maintenance.