Essential oils derived from aromatic plants possess useful properties concerning human health, such as antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal activities. They can be used as natural alternatives to synthetic preparations to prevent and treat infectious diseases caused by multidrug resistant microorganisms. They are used successfully to treat respiratory tract, digestive system and skin infections. Many of them may be applied in anticancer therapy, cardiovascular and nervous system disorders, as well as to reduce the level of cholesterol and decrease and regulate the glucose level. Due to their ability to stimulate adrenal and estrogen hormone production and their antimicrobial properties, they are useful in the treatment of gynecological diseases. Oils are commonly used in the food and cosmetic industry. The present paper describes recent patents concerning potential uses of essential oils in human health and treatment of diseases.