Oxygen is indispensable for all aerobic organisms and has become one of the most widely used therapeutic agents. Currently, oxygen not only is applied in the treatment of diseases, but becomes a modality for the prevention of some diseases. Hyperoxia preconditioning with normobaric or hyperbaric oxygen has been found to be protective in some diseases in several animal models and clinical trials. Currently, investigators pay increasing attention to the application of hyperoxia preconditioning in the prevention of common neurological diseases, and encouraging effectiveness has been achieved. In the present short review, we briefly described the development, application and mechanisms of hyperoxia preconditioning in the neurology, and the issues in future application of hyperoxia preconditioning were also proposed.