MyD88 signaling in B cells regulates the production of Th1-dependent antibodies to AAV

Mol Ther. 2012 Aug;20(8):1571-81. doi: 10.1038/mt.2012.101. Epub 2012 May 29.


The administration of recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors (rAAV) for gene transfer induces strong humoral responses through mechanisms that remain incompletely characterized. To investigate the links between innate and adaptive immune responses to the vector, rAAVs were injected intravenously into mice deficient in cell-intrinsic components of innate responses (Toll-like receptors (TLRs), type-1 interferon (IFN) or inflammasome signaling molecules) and AAV-specific antibodies were measured. Of all molecules tested, only MyD88 was critically needed to mount immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses since MyD88(-/-) mice failed to develop high levels of AAV-specific IgG2 and IgG3, regardless of capsid serotype injected. None of the TLRs tested was essential here, but TLR9 ensured a Th1-biased antibody responses. Indeed, capsid-specific Th1 cells were induced upon injection of rAAV1, as directly confirmed with an epitope-tagged capsid, and the priming and development of these Th1 cells required T cell-extrinsic MyD88. Cell transfer experiments showed that autonomous MyD88 signaling in B cells, but not T cells, was sufficient to produce Th1-dependent IgGs. Therefore, rAAV triggers innate responses, at least via B cells, controlling the development of capsid-specific Th1-driven antibodies. MyD88 emerges as a critical and pivotal regulator of both T- and B-cell adaptive immunity against AAV.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adenoviridae / immunology*
  • Animals
  • Antibodies / immunology*
  • Antibodies / metabolism*
  • B-Lymphocytes / immunology*
  • B-Lymphocytes / metabolism*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88 / genetics
  • Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88 / metabolism*
  • Signal Transduction / genetics
  • Signal Transduction / physiology
  • Th1 Cells / immunology*


  • Antibodies
  • Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88